Sahabat Nabi Merubah Sunnah Nabi
Melanjutkan tulisan terdahulu dan menindaklanjuti permintaan Mbak Hilda, aku coba postingkan beberapa hadits yang aku dapatkan. Aku sengaja tidak memberikan penjelasan, biar para pembaca sendiri yang menafsirkannya. Aku hanya akan mempostingkan beberapa hadits riwayat Bukhari mengenai perilaku beberapa orang yang diklaim sebagai sahabat Nabi, ternyata mengubah sunnah Nabinya sendiri.
Hadits-hadits di bawah ini aku kutip dari The Translation of the Meanings of Sahih Al-Bukhari Arabic-English Vol. VIII karya Dr. Muhammad Muhsin Khan, Islamic University, Medina Al-Munawwara.
Berawal dari hadits berikut:
Hadits No. 578
Narated ’Abdullah: The Prophet said, ”I am your predecessor at the Lake-Fount.” ‘Abdullah added: The Prophet said, “I am your predecessor at the Lake-Fount, and some of you will be brought in front of me till I will see them and then they will be taken away from me and I will say, ‘O Lor, my companions!’ It will be said, ‘You do not know what they did after you have left.’
Hadits No. 585
Narated Abu Hazim from Sahl bin Sa’d: The Prophet said, “I am your predecessor (forerunner) at the Lake-Fount, and whoever will pass by there, he will dring from itu kautsar and whoever will drink from itu, he will never be thirsty. They will come to me some people whom I will recognize, and they will recognize me, but a barrier will be placed between me and them.” Abu Hazim added: An-Nu’man bin Abi ‘Aiyash, on hearing me, said, “Did you hear this from Sahl?” I said, “Yes.” He said, “I bear witness that I heard Abu Sa’id Al-Khudri saying the same, adding that the Prophet said: “I will say: There are of me (i.e. my followers). It will be said, “You do not know what they innovated (new things) in the religion after you left.” I will say, “Far removed, far removed (from mercy), those who changed (their religion) after me.”
Abu Huraira narrated that the Prophet said, “On the Day of Resurrection a group of companions will come to me, but will be driven away from the Lake-Fount, and I will say, “O Lord (those are) my companions!” It will be said, “You have no knowledge as to what they innovated after you left; they turned apostate as renegades (reverted from Islam).”
Berangkat dari hadits di atas, muncul pertanyaan, “Apakah benar sahabat Nabi itu merubah sunnah-sunnah Nabi? Apakah benar sahabat telah melakukan perubahan dalam agama Islam? Lalu perubahan seperti apa yang tercantum dalam riwayat sejarah?”
Berikut ini beberapa riwayat yang aku dapatkan, sekali lagi, aku tidak akan menambahkan penjelasanku. Silakan Anda semua untuk menafsirkannya.
Sebelumnya, aku kutipkan riwayat yang menceritakan kepada kita perihal penyaksian sahabat Nabi bahwa mereka telah mengubah Sunnah Rasulullah sampai dengan shalat.
Hadits No. 507
Narrated Ghallan: Anas said, ”I do not (now-a-days) things as it were (practiced) at the time of the Prophet.” Somebody said, “The Prayer (Is as It was).” Anas said, “Have you not done in the prayer what you have done?
Narrated Az-Zuhri that he visited Anas bin Malik at Damascus and foun him weeping and asked him why he was weeping. He replied, “I do not know anything which I used to know during the life-time of Allah’s Apostle except this prayer which is being lost (not offered as It should be).
Hadits No. 488
Narrated Al-Musaiyab: I met Al-Bara’ bin ‘Azib and said (to him). “May you live prosperously! You enjoyed the company of the Prophet and gave him the Pledge of allegiance (of Hudaibiya) under the Tree.” On that, Al-Bara’ said, “O my nephew! You do not know what we have done after him (i.e. his death).”
Selanjutnya, aku akan mengutipkan beberapa riwayat yang menunjukkan bahwa ada beberapa sahabat yang mengubah ketentuan-ketentuan yang berlaku ketika Nabi Muhammad masih hidup.
Khalifah Utsman adalah orang yang pertama mengubah Sunnah Nabi Saw mengenai shalat:
Khalifah Utsman telah mengubah sunnah Nabi. Pada masa hidup Nabi, shalat di Mina dua raka’at Qasr, begitu juga khalifah Abu Bakar, ’Umar, dan ’Utsman pada awal pemerintahannya. Kemudian dia (’Utsman) melakukan empat rakaat di Mina tanpa Qasr.
Hadits No. 188
Narrated ’Abdullah (bin ’Umar): I offered the prayer with the Prophet, Abu Bakar and ’Umar at Mina and it was two Rak’at. ‘Utsman in the early days of his caliphate did the same, but later on the started praying the full prayer.
Marwan, Gubernur Madinah merubah sunnah Nabi juga. Berikut riwayatnya:
Hadits No. 76
Narrated Abu Sa’id Al-Khudri: The prophet used to proceed to the Musalla on the days of ’Id-ul-Fitr and ’Id-ul-Adha; the first thing to begin with was the prayer and after that he would stand in front of the people and the people would keep sitting in their rows. Then he would preach to them, advise them and give them orders (i.e. khutba). And after that if he wished to send an army for an expedition, he would do so; or if he wanted to give and order he would do so, and then depart. The people followed this tradition till I went out with Marwan, The Governor of Medina, for the the prayer of ‘Id-ul-Adha or ‘Id-ul-Fitr. When we reached the Musalla, there was a pulpit made by Kathir bin As-Salt. Marwan wanted to get up on that pulpit before the prayer. I got hold of his clothes but he pulled them and ascended the pulpit and delivered the Khutba before the prayer. I said to him, “By Allah, you have changed (the Prophet’s tradition).” He replied, “O Abu Sa’id! Gone is that which you know.” I said, “By Allah! What I know is better than what I do not know.” Marwan said, “People do not sit to listen to our khutba after the prayer, so I delivered the Khutba before the prayer.”
Sahabat mengubah sunnah Nabi dengan mematuhi ketetapan Khalifah ‘Umar.
Hadits No. 342
Narrated Shaqiq bin Salama: I was with ’Abdullah and Abu Musa; the latter asked the former, ”O Abu Abdurrahman! What is your opinion if somebody becomes Junub and no water is available?” Abdullah replied, “Do not pray till water is found.” Abu Musa said, “What do you say about the statement of ‘Ammar (who was ordered by the Prophet to perform Tayammum). The Prophet said to him: Perform Tayammum and that would be sufficient.” ‘Abdullah replied, “Don’t you see that ‘Umar was not satisfied by ‘Ammar’s statement?” Abu Musa said, “Alright, leave ‘Ammar’s statement, but what will you say about this verse (of Tayammum)?” ‘Abdullah kept quiet and then said, “If we allowed it, then they would probably perform Tayammum even if water was available, if one of them found it (water) cold.”
The narrator added, “I said to Shaqiq.” Then did ‘Abdullah dislike to perform Tayammum because of this?” He replied, “Yes.”
Terakhir, aku kutipkan dari buku Tarikh Khulafa’ karya Imam As-Suyuthi Terbitan Pustaka Kautsar bahwa Khalifah Umar bin Khattab yang pertama kali melarang nikah mut’ah.
Sebenarnya masih banyak lagi. Tetapi aku cukupkan sekian dulu. Kalau ada yang mau nambahkan, aku persilakan.